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DHAMMACKKAPPAVATTANA SUTTA - SETTING IN MOTION THE WHEEL OF RIGHTEOUNESS

On the first Esala Full Moon Poya day after the Enlightenment Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta-setting in motion the wheel of righteousness was expounded by the Blessed One to the five Brahmin ascetics at Deer Park in Isipatana near Benares. This is the first discourse of the Enlightened One and the essence or crux of Tripitaka-the Buddhist scriptures. In this discourse the Blessed One indicated to the five Brhmin ascetics the two extremes that should be avoided and the Middle Path that should be followed. Four Noble Truths are explained in three distractions and in twelve ways. By listening to the discourse ascetic Kondanna’s eyes were opened to Dhamma.

Thus have I heard: On one occasion the Blessed One was residing at the deer park in Isipatana near Benares. There the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus as follows: “Monks, there are two extremes that should be avoided by a recluse.” “The constant attachment to sensual pleasures- Kamasukhallikanuyogaya which is puerile, base, the way of vile people, not worthy for nobles and profitless and the constant addiction to self mortification which is painful, not worthy for nobles and profitless.

O monks, avoiding these two extremes the Blessed One has discovered the Middle Path – Madyama Patipada which opens the eyes of knowledge, peace- Vupasamaya, Higher Wisdom- Abhinnaya Enlightenment- Samodaya and Nibbana

“What, O Bhikkhus, is that Middle Path the Tathagata has discovered which opens the eyes of knowledge,  peace- Vupasamaya, Higher Wisdom- Abhinnaya Enlightenment- Samodaya and Nibbana?”

 “It is the Noble Eightfold Path-  namely,

 Right understanding- Samma Digtthi,

* Right thoughts- Samma Sankappa,

*Right Speech- Samma Vaca,

*Right Action- Samma Kammanta,

*Right Livelihood- Samma Ajiva,

*Right Effort- Samma Vayama,

*Right Mindfulness- Samma Sati, and

 *Right Concentration Samma Samadhi.

 This is the Middle Path realized by the Tathagata for complete cessation of craving, destruction of it, giving it up and liberating oneself from it, renunciation, liberation and detachment

  1. “Now this, O Bhikkhus, is The Noble Truth of suffering:-Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering, to be united with the unpleasant is suffering, to be separated from the pleasant is suffering, in brief, and the five Aggregates of Attachment are sufferings.”
  2.  “Now this, O Bhikkhus, is The Noble Truth of the cause of suffering: - It is the craving which produces rebirth, accompanied by passionate clinging, welcome this and that life. It is craving for sensual pleasures Kamatanha, craving for becoming, Bhavatanha and craving for annihilation-Vibhavatanha”.
  3.  “Now this, O Bhikkhus, is The Noble Truth of cessation of suffering:-It is the complete separation from, destruction of, this very craving, its forsaking, renunciation, liberation and detachment.”
  4.  “Now this, O Bhikkhus, is The Noble Truth of The path leading to the cessation of suffering:-It is the Noble Eightfold Path-namely, Right understanding- Samma Digtthi, Right thoughts- Samma  Sankappa, Right Speech- Samma Vaca, Right Action- Samma Kammanta, Right Livelihood- Samma Ajiva, Right Effort- Samma Vayama, Right Mindfulness- Samma Sati, and Right Concentration  Samma Samadhi

(1)i.      “This is the Noble Truth of Suffering-Dukkha Ariya Sacca”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the   eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

   ii.      “This Noble Truth of Suffering should be comprehended-Parinneyya.”


Thus, O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

 iii.       “This Noble Truth of Suffering has been comprehended-Parinnata”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the    eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

(2)i.      “This is the Noble Truth of cause of Suffering-Dukkha Samudaya Ariya   Sacca


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me   the   eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

    ii.     “This Noble Truth of Suffering should be eradicated. Pahatabba”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the   eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

    iii.      “This is the Noble Truth of cause of Suffering has been eradicated-Pahinam”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

(3)  i.    “This is the Noble Truth of the cessation of Suffering-Dukkha Nirodha Ariya  Sacca”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the   eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

    ii.     “This Noble Truth of Suffering should be realized. Sacchikatabbam”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the   eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

iii.      “This is the Noble Truth of cause of Suffering has been realized- Sacchikatam”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the      eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

(4)  i.    “This is the Noble Truth of the cessation of Suffering-Dukkha Nirodha gamini Patipada Ariya  Sacca”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the   eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

ii.      “This Noble Truth of Suffering should be developed. Bhavetabbam”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the   eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

iii.      “This is the Noble Truth of cause of Suffering has been realized- Bhavitam”


Thus O Bhikkhus, with regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the      eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.

“As long as , O Bhikkhus, the absolute knowledge regarding this four Noble Truths under their three aspects and twelve modes was not perfectly clear to me ,so long I did not acknowledge, in this world, together with gods, Maras and Brahmas, among the hosts of ascetics and priests, gods and men, that I had gained the incomparable, Supreme Enlightenment.When,O Bkikkhus, the absolute knowledge regarding these Noble Truths under their three aspects and twelve modes, became perfectly clear to me then only did I acknowledge, in this world, together with gods, Maras and Brahmas, among the hosts of ascetics and priests, gods and men, that I had gained the incomparable, Supreme Enlightenment.

“And there arose in me the knowledge and insight –Unshakable is the deliverance of my mind, this is my last birth, now there are no more rebirths.”

 The Blessed One said thus.

The delighted Bhikkhus applauded the words of the Blessed One.

While this doctrine was being expounded, there arose in Venerable Kondanna the dustless, stainless eye of Truth, “Whatsoever has arisen, all that must inevitably perish”  

When the Buddha expounded this Dhammacakka the earth bound deities exclaimed:-

“This excellent Dhammacakka, which could not be expounded by any ascetic, priest, god, Mara or Brahma in this world, was expounded by the Blessed One at the Deer Park in Isipatana, Near Benares.”

Hearing this Devas of Catummaharajika, Tavatimsa, Yama, Tusita, Nimmanarati, Paranimmitavasavatti and the Brahmas of Brahma Parisajja, Brahma Purohita, Maha Brahma, Paritabba, Appamanabha, Abhassara, Parittasubha, Appamanasubha,  Subhakinha, Vehappala, Aviha, Attappa, Sudassa, Sudassi and Akanittha also raised the same joyous cry.

Thus at the very moment, at that very instant, this cry extended as far as the Brahma Realm. These ten thousand world systems quaked, tottered and trembled violently.

A radiant light, surpassing the effulgence of Devas, appeared in the world.

The Blessed One said:

“Friends, Kondanna has indeed understood.  Friends, Kondanna has indeed understood.”

Therefore, the Venerable Kondanna was named Annata Kondanna.
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